Maternal and paternal psychological control and adolescents' negative adjustment: A dyadic longitudinal study in three countries.
Psychological Control (PC) interferes with autonomy-related processes in adolescence and has a negative impact on adolescents' development related to internalizing and externalizing problems. Several scholars suggested that PC can be used differently by mothers and fathers. However, these differences are still understudied and mainly grounded on maternal and/or adolescents' perspectives, leading to potentially incomplete inferences on the effects of PC. The present study extends previous research on PC in two directions. First, we tested the dyadic and cumulative effects of maternal and paternal PC on adolescents' antisocial behaviors and anxious-depressive symptoms. Secondly, we explored the cross-cultural generalizability of these associations in three countries: Italy, Colombia, and USA. Participants included 376 families with data from three consecutive years (T1, adolescents' age = 13.70). Mothers' and fathers' reports of PC and youth's reports of antisocial and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) we found that maternal PC predicted adolescents' reported antisocial behaviors whereas paternal PC predicted lower anxious-depressed symptoms. Comparisons across countries evidenced the cross-cultural invariance of the longitudinal APIM across Italy, Colombia, and USA. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
Basili, E; Zuffianò, A; Pastorelli, C; Thartori, E; Lunetti, C; Favini, A; Cirimele, F; Di Giunta, L; Gerbino, M; Bacchini, D; Uribe Tirado, LM; Lansford, JE
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