Association Between Blood Pressure Classification Using the 2017 ACC/AHA Blood Pressure Guideline and Retinal Atherosclerosis.
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the association between the blood pressure (BP) classification defined by the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline and the prevalence of retinal atherosclerosis. METHODS: This study was a retrospective observational cross-sectional analysis using the JMDC Claims Database. We analyzed 280,599 subjects not taking any antihypertensive medications. According to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline, each subject was categorized as having normal BP (n = 159,524), elevated BP (n = 35,603), stage 1 hypertension (n = 54,795), or stage 2 hypertension (n = 30,677) using the BP value at the initial health checkup. Retinal photographs were assessed according to the Keith-Wagener-Barker system. RESULTS: The median age was 46 years, and 50.4% subjects were men. Retinal atherosclerosis, defined as Keith-Wagener-Barker system grade ≥1, was observed in 3.2% in normal BP, 5.2% in elevated BP, 7.7% in stage 1 hypertension, and 18.7% in stage 2 hypertension. Compared with normal BP, elevated BP (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.38), stage 1 hypertension (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.64-1.79), and stage 2 hypertension (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 3.93-4.28) were associated with a higher prevalence of retinal atherosclerosis. Among 92,121 subjects without obesity, high waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, elevated BP (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.19-1.51), stage 1 hypertension (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.61-1.98), and stage 2 hypertension (OR, 4.42; 95% CI, 4.00-4.92) were associated with a higher prevalence of retinal atherosclerosis. This association was observed in all subgroups stratified by age or sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation suggests that retinal atherosclerosis could start even in individuals with elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension.
Matsuoka, S; Kaneko, H; Yano, Y; Itoh, H; Fukui, A; Morita, K; Kiriyama, H; Kamon, T; Fujiu, K; Seki, H; Michihata, N; Jo, T; Takeda, N; Morita, H; Nakamura, S; Yokoo, T; Nishiyama, A; Node, K; Yasunaga, H; Komuro, I
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