Prevalence of Reintubation Within 24 Hours of Extubation in Bronchiolitis: Retrospective Cohort Study Using the Virtual Pediatric Systems Database.
(Journal Article;Multicenter Study)
OBJECTIVES: High-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation are used to support children following liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation. Evidence comparing extubation failure rates between patients randomized to high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is available for adult and neonatal patients; however, similar pediatric trials are lacking. In this study, we employed a quality controlled, multicenter PICU database to test the hypothesis that high-flow nasal cannula is associated with higher prevalence of reintubation within 24 hours among patients with bronchiolitis. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prior study utilizing the Virtual Pediatric Systems database. SETTING: One-hundred twenty-four participating PICUs. PATIENTS: Children less than 24 months old with a primary diagnosis of bronchiolitis who were admitted to one of 124 PICUs between January 2009 and September 2015 and received invasive mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 759 patients, median age was 2.4 months (1.3-5.4 mo), 41.2% were female, 39.7% had greater than or equal to 1 comorbid condition, and 43.7% were Caucasian. Median PICU length of stay was 8.7 days (interquartile range, 5.8-13.7 d) and survival to PICU discharge was 100%. Median duration of intubation was 5.5 days (3.4-9.0 d) prior to initial extubation. High-flow nasal cannula was used following extubation in most (656 [86.5%]) analyzed subjects. The overall prevalence of reintubation within 24 hours was 5.9% (45 children). Extubation to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was associated with greater prevalence of reintubation than extubation to high-flow nasal cannula (11.7% vs 5.0%; p = 0.016) and, in an a posteriori model that included Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score and comorbidities, was associated with increased odds of reintubation (odds ratio, 2.43; 1.11-5.34; p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis of a multicenter database of children with bronchiolitis, extubation to high-flow nasal cannula was associated with a lower prevalence of reintubation within 24 hours compared with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in both unmatched and propensity-matched analysis. Prospective trials are needed to determine if post-extubation support modality can mitigate the risk of extubation failure.
Badruddin, SS; Clayton, JA; McKee, BP; Slain, KN; Rotta, AT; Malay, S; Shein, SL
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