Dematiaceous fungal endophthalmitis: report of a case and review of the literature.
BACKGROUND: Pleurostomophora richardsiae (formerly Phialophora richardsiae) is a dematiaceous fungus that is an uncommon cause of ocular infection. Herein, we present a case of endogenous endophthalmitis associated with disseminated P. richardsiae infection. FINDINGS: This is a descriptive case report with a brief review of literature. A 43-year-old male admitted to the hospital following an acute cerebellar hemorrhage was found to have a swollen and tender wrist. The patient was afebrile with leukocytosis. Visual acuity was hand motion in the right eye and 20/20 in the left. Right eye examination noted anterior chamber cells and flare, vitreous haze and multiple large, and fluffy retinal infiltrates. Diagnostic vitrectomy revealed a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate with numerous fungal elements. Blood cultures were negative, multiple transesophageal echocardiography studies revealed no vegetations, and synovial fluid aspiration of the wrist and biopsy of the radius were unremarkable. The patient was treated with intravitreal cefazolin, vancomycin, and amphotericin B, topical ciprofloxacin and natamycin, and intravenous amphotericin B and voriconazole. Visual acuity in the right eye declined to light perception, and examination revealed increasing anterior and posterior chamber inflammation. The patient died several weeks after presentation due to a massive intracranial hemorrhage. Fungal culture results from the vitrectomy were received post mortem and were positive for P. richardsiae. CONCLUSIONS: P. richardsiae endophthalmitis is rare, and outcomes are typically poor. Infections typically occur following traumatic skin inoculation; however, a long refractory period may occur before symptoms develop. Early diagnosis and combination antimicrobial therapy are essential to optimize visual outcomes.
Fox, AR; Houser, KH; Morris, WR; Walton, RC
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