Two or Three? Approaches to Staging of the Paramedian Forehead Flap for Nasal Reconstruction.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The paramedian forehead flap is a historic cornerstone of plastic surgery and a mainstay of complex nasal reconstruction. Although initially described as a 2-stage procedure, several procedural advancements and modifications have been proposed, with the most notable being the addition of a third, intermediate stage. Proponents of this 3-stage approach argue that the addition of an intermediate stage improves flap perfusion, expands lining and structural support options, and provides superior aesthetic outcomes. Although this technique has grown in popularity, studies comparing the 2- versus 3-stage approach are relatively scarce in the literature. Existing comparative studies seem to suggest that the 3-stage paramedian forehead flap may have advantages in large, complex nasal defects and patients at high risk for vascular compromise. Additionally, comparative analyses with respect to aesthetic outcome were found to be largely equivocal, suggesting that surgeon comfort and preference should guide flap selection.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Oleck, NC; Hernandez, JA; Cason, RW; Glener, AD; Shammas, RL; Avashia, YJ; Marcus, JR

Published Date

  • May 1, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 9 / 5

Start / End Page

  • e3591 -

PubMed ID

  • 34881150

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8647867

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2169-7574

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003591


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States