Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Enhances Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in a Ciprofloxacin-Treated Defined-Microbiota Piglet Model of Human Rotavirus Infection.
Human rotavirus (HRV) infection is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Broad-spectrum antibiotic-induced intestinal microbial imbalance and the ensuing immune-metabolic dysregulation contribute to the persistence of HRV diarrhea. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), a Gram-negative probiotic, was shown to be a potent immunostimulant and alleviated HRV-induced diarrhea in monocolonized gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets. Our goal was to determine how EcN modulates immune responses in ciprofloxacin (Cipro)-treated Gn piglets colonized with a defined commensal microbiota (DM) and challenged with virulent HRV (VirHRV). Cipro given in therapeutic doses for a short term reduced serum and intestinal total and HRV-specific antibody titers, while EcN treatment alleviated this effect. Similarly, EcN treatment increased the numbers of total immunoglobulin-secreting cells, HRV-specific antibody-secreting cells, activated antibody-forming cells, resting/memory antibody-forming B cells, and naive antibody-forming B cells in systemic and/or intestinal tissues. Decreased levels of proinflammatory but increased levels of immunoregulatory cytokines and increased frequencies of Toll-like receptor-expressing cells were evident in the EcN-treated VirHRV-challenged group. Moreover, EcN treatment increased the frequencies of T helper and T cytotoxic cells in systemic and/or intestinal tissues pre-VirHRV challenge and the frequencies of T helper cells, T cytotoxic cells, effector T cells, and T regulatory cells in systemic and/or intestinal tissues postchallenge. Moreover, EcN treatment increased the frequencies of systemic and mucosal conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, respectively, and the frequencies of systemic natural killer cells. Our findings demonstrated that Cipro use altered immune responses of DM-colonized neonatal Gn pigs, while EcN supplementation rescued these immune parameters partially or completely.IMPORTANCE Rotavirus (RV) is a primary cause of malabsorptive diarrhea in children and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. The use of antibiotics exacerbates intestinal microbial imbalance and results in the persistence of RV-induced diarrhea. Probiotics are now being used to treat enteric infections and ulcerative colitis. We showed previously that probiotics partially protected gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets against human RV (HRV) infection and decreased the severity of diarrhea by modulating immune responses. However, the interactions between antibiotic and probiotic treatments and HRV infection in the context of an established gut microbiota are poorly understood. In this study, we developed a Gn pig model to study antibiotic-probiotic-HRV interactions in the context of a defined commensal microbiota (DM) that mimics aspects of the infant gut microbiota. Our results provide valuable information that will contribute to the treatment of antibiotic- and/or HRV-induced diarrhea and may be applicable to other enteric infections in children.
Michael, H; Paim, FC; Langel, SN; Miyazaki, A; Fischer, DD; Chepngeno, J; Amimo, J; Deblais, L; Rajashekara, G; Saif, LJ; Vlasova, AN
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