Reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in protein malnourished human-faecal-microbiota-transplanted gnotobiotic pig model is in part attributed to the gut microbiota.
The low efficacy of human rotavirus (HRV) vaccines in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains a major challenge for global health. Protein-calorie malnutrition (kwashiorkor) affects the gut microbiota and compromises immune development, leading to environmental enteropathy, vaccine failures, and increased susceptibility to enteric diseases in young children. Relationship between diet and reduced vaccine efficacy in developing countries is not well established; therefore, we investigated the interconnections between the host-microbiota-nutrition-HRV vaccine using HRV-vaccinated, human infant faecal microbiota (HIFM)-transplanted neonatal gnotobiotic pigs fed with a protein deficient or sufficient diet. The microbiota from faecal, intestinal (duodenum, ileum, jejunum, and colon), and systemic tissue (liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node [MLN]) samples was analysed before and after HRV challenge using MiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing. Overall, microbiota from deficient fed HIFM pigs displayed, compared to the sufficient group, significantly higher Shannon index, especially in the faeces and lower intestines; higher level of Proteus and Enterococcus, and lower level of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, and Streptococcus in the three types of samples collected (P<0.05); and higher unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs), especially in the systemic tissues. Further, the multivariate analysis between microbiota and immunologic data showed that 38 OTUs at the genus level correlated (r2≤0.5 or ≥-0.5; P<0.05) with at least one host immune response parameter (regulatory [Tregs and transforming growth factor-β], effectors [interferon (IFN)-γ+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-12], and inflammatory [tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-17 and IL-22]) and with opposite trends between diet groups. Differences described above were increased after HRV challenge. We demonstrated that a protein deficient diet affects the composition of the gut microbiota and those changes may further correlate with immune responses induced by HRV and perturbed by the deficient diet. Thus, our findings suggest that the reduced efficacy of HRV vaccine observed in Gn pig model is in part attributed to the altered microbiota composition.
Srivastava, V; Deblais, L; Huang, H-C; Miyazaki, A; Kandasamy, S; Langel, SN; Paim, FC; Chepngeno, J; Kathayat, D; Vlasova, AN; Saif, LJ; Rajashekara, G
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