Protein Malnutrition Alters Tryptophan and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Homeostasis and Adaptive Immune Responses in Human Rotavirus-Infected Gnotobiotic Pigs with Human Infant Fecal Microbiota Transplant.
Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets and infected with virulent human rotavirus (HRV). After human rotavirus infection, protein-deficient pigs had decreased human rotavirus antibody titers and total IgA concentrations, systemic T helper (CD3+ CD4+) and cytotoxic T (CD3+ CD8+) lymphocyte frequencies, and serum tryptophan and angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2. Additionally, deficient-diet pigs had impaired tryptophan catabolism postinfection compared with sufficient-diet pigs. Tryptophan supplementation was tested as an intervention in additional groups of fecal microbiota-transplanted, rotavirus-infected, sufficient- and deficient-diet pigs. Tryptophan supplementation increased the frequencies of regulatory (CD4+ or CD8+ CD25+ FoxP3+) T cells in pigs on both the sufficient and the deficient diets. These results suggest that a protein-deficient diet impairs activation of the adaptive immune response following HRV infection and alters tryptophan homeostasis.
Fischer, DD; Kandasamy, S; Paim, FC; Langel, SN; Alhamo, MA; Shao, L; Chepngeno, J; Miyazaki, A; Huang, H-C; Kumar, A; Rajashekara, G; Saif, LJ; Vlasova, AN
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