Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 protects gnotobiotic pigs against human rotavirus by modulating pDC and NK-cell responses.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, is one of the most widely used probiotics; while fewer gram-negative probiotics including Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are characterized. A mechanistic understanding of their individual and interactive effects on human rotavirus (HRV) and immunity is lacking. In this study, noncolonized, EcN-, LGG-, and EcN + LGG-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were challenged with HRV. EcN colonization is associated with a greater protection against HRV, and induces the highest frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), significantly increased NK-cell function and decreased frequencies of apoptotic and TLR4+ mononuclear cells (MNCs). Consistent with the highest NK-cell activity, splenic CD172+ MNCs (DC enriched fraction) of EcN-colonized pigs produced the highest levels of IL-12 in vitro. LGG colonization has little effect on the above parameters, which are intermediate in EcN + LGG-colonized pigs, suggesting that probiotics modulate each other's effects. Additionally, in vitro EcN-treated splenic or intestinal MNCs produce higher levels of innate, immunoregulatory and immunostimulatory cytokines, IFN-α, IL-12, and IL-10, compared to MNCs of pigs treated with LGG. These results indicate that the EcN-mediated greater protection against HRV is associated with potent stimulation of the innate immune system and activation of the DC-IL-12-NK immune axis.
Vlasova, AN; Shao, L; Kandasamy, S; Fischer, DD; Rauf, A; Langel, SN; Chattha, KS; Kumar, A; Huang, H-C; Rajashekara, G; Saif, LJ
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