Lactogenic immunity and vaccines for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV): Historical and current concepts.
Morbidity, mortality, and loss of productivity from enteric diseases in neonatal piglets cost swine producers millions of dollars annually. In 2013-2014, the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) outbreak led to $900 million to $1.8 billion in annual losses to US swine producers. Passive lactogenic immunity remains the most promising and effective way to protect neonatal suckling piglets from enteric diseases like PEDV. Protecting suckling piglets through lactogenic immunity is dependent on trafficking of pathogen-specific IgA plasmablasts to the mammary gland and accumulation of secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies in milk, defined as the gut-mammary-sIgA axis. Due to an impermeable placenta, piglets are born agammaglobulinic, and are highly susceptible to a plethora of infectious agents. They rely solely on colostrum and milk antibodies for maternal lactogenic immunity. Previous advances in the development of live and attenuated vaccines for another devastating diarrheal virus of pigs, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), provide insights into the mechanisms of maternal immunity and piglet protection. In this chapter, we will review previous research on TGEV-induced lactogenic immunity to provide a historical perspective on current efforts for PEDV control and vaccines in the swine industry. Identifying factors that influence lactogenic immunity and the gut-mammary-sIgA axis may lead to improved vaccine regimens for PEDV and other enteric pathogens in gestating swine and improved overall herd immunity, swine health and industry productivity.
Langel, SN; Paim, FC; Lager, KM; Vlasova, AN; Saif, LJ
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