Adjuvant effects of invariant NKT cell ligand potentiates the innate and adaptive immunity to an inactivated H1N1 swine influenza virus vaccine in pigs.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Pigs are considered as the source of some of the emerging human flu viruses. Inactivated swine influenza virus (SwIV) vaccine has been in use in the US swine herds, but it failed to control the flu outbreaks. The main reason has been attributed to lack of induction of strong local mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a unique T cell subset, and activation of iNKT cell using its ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been shown to potentiate the cross-protective immunity to inactivated influenza virus vaccine candidates in mice. Recently, we discovered iNKT cell in pig and demonstrated its activation using α-GalCer. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated H1N1 SwIV coadministered with α-GalCer intranasally against a homologous viral challenge. Our results demonstrated the potent adjuvant effects of α-GalCer in potentiating both innate and adaptive immune responses to SwIV Ags in the lungs of pigs, which resulted in reduction in the lung viral load by 3 logs compared to without adjuvant. Immunologically, in the lungs of pigs vaccinated with α-GalCer an increased virus specific IgA response, IFN-α secretion and NK cell-cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, iNKT cell-stimulation enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the lungs of pigs⋅ In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time iNKT cell adjuvant effects in pigs to SwIV Ags through augmenting the innate and adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Dwivedi, V; Manickam, C; Dhakal, S; Binjawadagi, B; Ouyang, K; Hiremath, J; Khatri, M; Hague, JG; Lee, CW; Renukaradhya, GJ

Published Date

  • April 15, 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 186 /

Start / End Page

  • 157 - 163

PubMed ID

  • 27016770

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-2542

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.02.028


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Netherlands