Intranasal delivery of an adjuvanted modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine reduces ROS production.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced predominantly by phagocytic cells in response to microbial infections. When produced at optimal levels ROS have potent antimicrobial properties. However, excessive production of ROS induces apoptosis/necrosis of infected as well as bystander cells, resulting in inflammatory pathology. Previously we showed that vaccination of pigs with a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine (PRRS-MLV) administered intranasally with a potent mucosal adjuvant M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysate (Mtb WCL) induces protective immunity against PRRSV challenge. In this study, using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells harvested from that study were quantified for the levels of ROS produced. Our results indicated that in vaccinated pigs, levels of ROS were lower compared to unvaccinated PRRSV-challenged pigs. In unvaccinated but PRRSV-challenged pigs, the higher ROS production was associated with increased inflammatory lung pathology. In conclusion, our results suggest that intranasal immunization using PRRS-MLV along with a potent mucosal adjuvant protects pigs against both homologous and virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge, which was associated with reduced ROS production and reduced lung pathology compared to control virus-challenged pigs.
Binjawadagi, B; Dwivedi, V; Manickam, C; Torrelles, JB; Renukaradhya, GJ
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