Intranasal delivery of whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces protective immune responses to a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine in pigs.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important disease to pork producers worldwide. Commercially, both live and killed PRRSV vaccines are available to control PRRS, but they are not always successful. Based on the results of mucosal immunization studies in other viral models, a good mucosal vaccine may be an effective way to elicit protective immunity to control PRRS outbreaks. In the present study, mucosal adjuvanticity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate (Mtb WCL) was evaluated in pigs administered a modified live PRRS virus vaccine (PRRS-MLV) intranasally. A Mtb WCL mediated increase in the frequency of NK cells, CD8(+)and CD4(+) T cells, and γδ T cells in pig lungs were detected. Importantly, an increased and early generation of PRRSV specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in PRRS-MLV+ Mtb WCL compared to pigs inoculated with vaccine alone. In addition, there was an increased secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFNγ and IL-12) that correlated with a reciprocal reduction in the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGFβ) as well as T-regulatory cells in pigs vaccinated with PRRS-MLV+ Mtb WCL. Further, a complete rescue in arginase levels in the lungs mediated through Mtb WCL was observed in pigs inoculated with PRRS-MLV. In conclusion, Mtb WCL may be a potent mucosal adjuvant for PRRS-MLV in order to potentiate the anti-PRRSV specific immune responses to control PRRS effectively.
Dwivedi, V; Manickam, C; Patterson, R; Dodson, K; Weeman, M; Renukaradhya, GJ
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