Independent Community Pharmacists' Experience in Offering Pharmacogenetic Testing.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


This study assessed pharmacist experiences with delivering pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in independent community pharmacies.


We conducted a cluster randomized trial of independent community pharmacies in North Carolina randomized to provide either PGx testing as a standalone service or integrated into medication therapy management (MTM) services. Surveys and pharmacist data about the delivery of PGx testing were collected. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted.


A total of 36 pharmacists participated in the study from 22 pharmacies. Sixteen pharmacists completed the pre-study and post-study surveys, and four pharmacists completed the semi-structured interviews. Thirty-one percent (11/36) of pharmacists had had some education in personalized medicine or PGx prior to the study. The only outcome that differed by study arm was the use of educational resources, with significantly higher utilization in the PGx testing only arm (p=0.007). Overall, compared to the pre-study assessment, pharmacists' knowledge about PGx significantly improved post-study (p=0.018). In the post-study survey, almost all pharmacists indicated that they felt qualified/able to provide PGx testing at their pharmacy. While 75% of pharmacists indicated that they may continue to provide PGx testing at their pharmacy after the study, the major concerns were lack of reimbursement for PGx counseling and consultation given the necessary time required.


Our findings demonstrated a positive experience with delivering PGx testing in the community pharmacy setting with little difference in pharmacists' experiences in providing PGx testing with or without MTM. Pharmacists were confident in their ability to provide PGx testing and were interested in continuing to offer testing, though sustained delivery may be challenged by lack of prescribing provider engagement and reimbursement.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Haga, SB; Mills, R; Moaddeb, J; Liu, Y; Voora, D

Published Date

  • January 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 14 /

Start / End Page

  • 877 - 886

PubMed ID

  • 34290521

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8289463

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1178-7066

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1178-7066

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.2147/pgpm.s314972


  • eng