Assessment of perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with severe versus simple malaria.
OBJECTIVE: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The objective was to compare outcomes of simple and severe malaria and to determine whether they vary by trimester or severity of infection. METHODS: Prospective cohort study performed in 3 hospitals in Rwanda. Both hospitalized and non-hospitalized pregnant patients with confirmed malaria were enrolled and followed until 7 days postpartum. Demographic, clinical manifestations and perinatal outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: There were 446 pregnant women with confirmed malaria and outcome data; 361 (80.9%) had simple malaria. Severe malaria was more common as pregnancy progressed; out of 85 with severe malaria, 12.9%, 29.4% and 57.6% were in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters (p<0.0001). Overall, a normal term delivery occurred in 57.6%, with preterm delivery in 24.9% and abortion in 13.5%. Adverse perinatal outcomes increased with trimester of infection (p<0.0001). Eight of the 9 early neonatal deaths had 3rd trimester infection (p<0.0001). There were 27 stillbirths; 63.7% were associated with 3rd trimester infection. A significant difference in perinatal outcomes between simple and severe malaria was seen: 64% of women with simple malaria had a normal term delivery as compared to 30.6% with severe malaria (p<0.0001). All complications were significantly greater with severe malaria. CONCLUSION: Overall poor outcomes are seen in malaria with significant differences in perinatal outcomes between simple and severe malaria and by trimester of infection. In addition to vector control and exposure prevention, efforts need to be made in screening, treatment education and monitoring pregnancies affected by malaria.
Kwizera, A; Ntasumumuyange, D; Small, M; Rulisa, S; Moscovitz, AN; Magriples, U
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