Urinary Amino-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Residents: Finding a Biomarker for Residential Exposure to Diesel Traffic.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Despite substantial evidence of marked exposure to and ill-health effects from diesel exhaust (DE) emissions among occupational population (e.g., miners, truck drivers, and taxi drivers), it is less understood to what extent non-occupational population was exposed to DE among various combustion sources, largely due to the lack of biomarkers that would indicate specific exposure to DE. We evaluated whether urinary amino-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (APAHs), such as major metabolites of DE-specific nitrated PAHs, can be used as DE exposure biomarkers in residential settings. We measured five urinary APAHs in 177 urine samples from 98 UK residents, 89 (91%) of them were London residents, and estimated their residential proximity to various traffic indicators (e.g., the road type, road length, traffic flow, and traffic volume). Participants living within 100 m of major roads exhibited increased levels of all five APAHs, among which 2-amino-fluorene (2-AFLU) reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). We estimated that a 10 m increase in the length of nearby major roads (<100 m) was associated with a 4.4% (95% CI of 1.1 to 7.6%) increase in 2-AFLU levels. Levels of 2-AFLU were significantly associated with the traffic flow of nearby buses and heavy-duty vehicles but not motorbikes, taxis, or coaches. We did not observe a significant association between distance to major roads or the sum of the major road length within 100 m with the other four biomarker concentrations. These results suggest the use of urinary 2-AFLU as a biomarker of DE exposure in urban residents.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Yang, Z; Lin, Y; Wang, S; Liu, X; Cullinan, P; Chung, KF; Zhang, J

Published Date

  • August 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 55 / 15

Start / End Page

  • 10569 - 10577

PubMed ID

  • 34264064

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1520-5851

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0013-936X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1021/acs.est.1c01549


  • eng