Radiologic, Pathologic, Clinical, and Physiologic Findings of Electronic Cigarette or Vaping Product Use-associated Lung Injury (EVALI): Evolving Knowledge and Remaining Questions.
Proposed as a safer alternative to smoking, the use of electronic cigarettes has not proven to be innocuous. With numerous deaths, there is an increasing degree of public interest in understanding the symptoms, imaging appearances, causes of, and treatment of electronic cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Patients with EVALI typically have a nonspecific clinical presentation characterized by a combination of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and constitutional symptoms. EVALI is a diagnosis of exclusion; the patient must elicit a history of recent vaping within 90 days, other etiologies must be eliminated, and chest imaging findings must be abnormal. Chest CT findings in EVALI most commonly show a pattern of acute lung injury on the spectrum of organizing pneumonia and diffuse alveolar damage. The pathologic pattern found depends on when in the evolution of the disease process the biopsy sample is taken. Other less common forms of lung injury, including acute eosinophilic pneumonia and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, have also been reported. Radiologists and pathologists help play an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having EVALI. Accurate and rapid identification may decrease morbidity and mortality by allowing for aggressive clinical management and glucocorticoid administration, which have been shown to decrease the severity of lung injury in some patients. In this review, the authors summarize the current state of the art for the imaging and pathologic findings of this disorder and outline a few of the major questions that remain to be answered.
Kligerman, S; Raptis, C; Larsen, B; Henry, TS; Caporale, A; Tazelaar, H; Schiebler, ML; Wehrli, FW; Klein, JS; Kanne, J
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