Keratin Profiling by Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing Identifies Human Prostate Stem Cell Lineage Hierarchy and Cancer Stem-Like Cells.
Single prostate stem cells can generate stem and progenitor cells to form prostaspheres in 3D culture. Using a prostasphere-based label retention assay, we recently identified keratin 13 (KRT13)-enriched prostate stem cells at single-cell resolution, distinguishing them from daughter progenitors. Herein, we characterized the epithelial cell lineage hierarchy in prostaspheres using single-cell RNA-seq analysis. Keratin profiling revealed three clusters of label-retaining prostate stem cells; cluster I represents quiescent stem cells (PSCA, CD36, SPINK1, and KRT13/23/80/78/4 enriched), while clusters II and III represent active stem and bipotent progenitor cells (KRT16/17/6 enriched). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed enrichment of stem and cancer-related pathways in cluster I. In non-label-retaining daughter progenitor cells, three clusters were identified; cluster IV represents basal progenitors (KRT5/14/6/16 enriched), while clusters V and VI represent early and late-stage luminal progenitors, respectively (KRT8/18/10 enriched). Furthermore, MetaCore analysis showed enrichment of the "cytoskeleton remodeling-keratin filaments" pathway in cancer stem-like cells from human prostate cancer specimens. Along with common keratins (KRT13/23/80/78/4) in normal stem cells, unique keratins (KRT10/19/6C/16) were enriched in cancer stem-like cells. Clarification of these keratin profiles in human prostate stem cell lineage hierarchy and cancer stem-like cells can facilitate the identification and therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer stem-like cells.
Hu, W-Y; Hu, D-P; Xie, L; Nonn, L; Lu, R; Abern, M; Shioda, T; Prins, GS
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