Regional and Racial Disparities in HIV-Related Kidney Disease.
Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Worldwide, an estimated 38 million people are living with HIV infection. The classic kidney disease of HIV infection, commonly known as HIV-associated nephropathy, is a collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis that almost exclusively affects individuals of African descent with advanced HIV disease. People living with HIV are also at risk for immune-complex kidney diseases, antiretroviral nephrotoxicity, and kidney disease due to co-infections and comorbidities. Challenges: The burden of HIV-related kidney disease is greatest in traditionally disadvantaged populations in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean and among minority populations in the United States and Europe. Factors contributing to these disparities include a higher prevalence of HIV infection, limited access to optimal antiretroviral therapy, and genetic susceptibility to kidney disease. Treatment and Prevention: Current treatment guidelines recommend the initiation of life-long antiretroviral therapy in all people living with HIV to prevent AIDS and non-AIDS complications, including kidney disease. People living with HIV who progress to end-stage kidney disease despite treatment are candidates for dialysis and kidney transplant, including the possibility of accepting organs from HIV-positive donors in some settings. Although HIV prevention is currently the only definitive solution, expanding access to antiretroviral therapy, dialysis, and kidney transplantation in people living with HIV are important intermediate steps to address the global burden of HIV-related kidney disease.
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