Energetic and endurance constraints on great ape quadrupedalism and the benefits of hominin bipedalism.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Bipedal walking was one of the first key behavioral traits that defined the evolution of early hominins. While it is not possible to identify specific selection pressures underlying bipedal evolution, we can better understand how the adoption of bipedalism may have benefited our hominin ancestors. Here, we focus on how bipedalism relaxes constraints on nonhuman primate quadrupedal limb mechanics, providing key advantages during hominin evolution. Nonhuman primate quadrupedal kinematics, especially in our closest living relatives, the great apes, are dominated by highly flexed limb joints, often associated with high energy costs, and are constrained by the need to reduce loads on mobile, but less stable forelimb joints. Bipedal walking would have allowed greater hind limb joint extension, which is associated with reduced energy costs and increased endurance. We suggest that relaxing these constraints provided bipedal hominins important benefits associated with long distance foraging and mobility.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Raichlen, DA; Pontzer, H

Published Date

  • July 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 30 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 253 - 261

PubMed ID

  • 34347329

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1520-6505

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1060-1538

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/evan.21911


  • eng