Abstract P102: Elevated Von Willebrand Factor in Patients Presenting With Large-Vessel Occlusion Stroke as First Symptom of COVID-19 Mirrors Levels in Patients With COVID-19 Requiring ICU-Level Care
COVID-19 is a coagulopathic disease marked by elevated d-dimers, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels accompanying arterial and venous thrombosis. While the majority of thrombotic events associated with COVID-19 occur in hospitalized patients, a subset of patients with minimal risk factors for CVA but with positive SARS-CoV-2 testing present with stroke as presumed first manifestation of infection. It is unclear if the pro-coagulant milieu present in patients requiring hospitalization for the respiratory complications of COVID-19 is the same as that of patients who present with stroke as first symptom of disease.
Following emergent revascularization, clinical vWF levels were measured in patients presenting with stroke who tested positive for COVID-19. In parallel, plasma vWF levels from 28 patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU-level care and 8 healthy volunteers were measured via ELISA.
Three otherwise healthy patients between the ages of 45-55 years with positive test for SARS-CoV-2 presented with large-vessel stroke. By comparison, the average age of non-COVID stroke patients was 66 years. The consistency of the clots extracted through the aspirating catheter was dark, gelatinous throughout, without evidence of calcification, and distal thrombosis was noted minutes after revascularization. The vWF level for one patient was 345%, while the other two patients had vWF levels >400% of normal, exceeding the upper limit of detection of clinical assays. In the ICU cohort, 12 of 28 had thrombotic events during hospitalization. vWF levels were elevated by a mean of 800% over healthy controls with a range of 230-1670%.
vWF levels were markedly elevated in both ICU patients and stroke patients with COVID-19 with an overlapping range of elevation over healthy controls. This suggests that widespread endothelial inflammation accompanies infection with SARS-CoV-2 even in the absence of respiratory symptoms.
Olson, LB; Naqvi, IA; CHEN, L; Que, LG; KRAFT, BD; Nair, SK; Nimjee, SM; Sullenger, BA
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