Intraperitoneal and intravenous routes for pain relief in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
(Clinical Trial;Journal Article)
BACKGROUND: Postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain are the most common complaints after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Postoperative pain is multifactorial in origin, and therefore multimodal therapy may be needed to optimize pain relief. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind study where patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 groups of 20 patients each. Statistical significance was considered P<0.05. Group 1 received 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25% intraperitoneal spray. Group 2 received 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25% intraperitoneal spray mixed with 200 mg ketoprofen. Group 3 received 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25% intraperitoneal spray and intravenous 200 mg ketoprofen. Group 4 received 200 mg ketoprofen intravenously. Group 5 was the control group. RESULTS: Demographic data were similar in the 5 groups. As compared with the control group, group 1 had significantly lower abdominal pain scores at 6 hours; group 2 at 0, 1, 2, and 6 hours; group 3 at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours; and group 4 at 2 hours. Group 1 had significantly lower shoulder pain scores at 1 and 6 hours; group 2 at 0 and 6 hours; and groups 3 and 4 at 0, 1, and 6 hours. The number of patients requiring postoperative rescue analgesics and the incidence of postoperative vomiting were significantly lower in group 3 only. CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal approach to pain management following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is best achieved with a combination of 40 mL bupivacaine 0.25% intraperitoneal spray and 200 mg intravenous ketoprofen, achieving the least incidence of postoperative vomiting.
Jabbour-Khoury, SI; Dabbous, AS; Gerges, FJ; Azar, MS; Ayoub, CM; Khoury, GS
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