The influence of hemoconcentration on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in acute, prolonged, and lifelong hypoxemia.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Hemoconcentration can influence hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) via increased frictional force and vasoactive signaling from erythrocytes, but whether the balance of these mechanism is modified by the duration of hypoxia remains to be determined. We performed three sequential studies: 1) at sea level, in normoxia and isocapnic hypoxia with and without isovolumic hemodilution (n = 10, aged 29 ± 7 yr); 2) at altitude (6 ± 2 days acclimatization at 5,050 m), before and during hypervolumic hemodilution (n = 11, aged 27 ± 5 yr) with room air and additional hypoxia [fraction of inspired oxygen ([Formula: see text])= 0.15]; and 3) at altitude (4,340 m) in Andean high-altitude natives with excessive erythrocytosis (EE; n = 6, aged 39 ± 17 yr), before and during isovolumic hemodilution with room air and hyperoxia (end-tidal Po2 = 100 mmHg). At sea level, hemodilution mildly increased pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP; +1.6 ± 1.5 mmHg, P = 0.01) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; +0.7 ± 0.8 wu, P = 0.04). In contrast, after acclimation to 5,050 m, hemodilution did not significantly alter PASP (22.7 ± 5.2 vs. 24.5 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.14) or PVR (2.2 ± 0.9 vs. 2.3 ± 1.2 wu, P = 0.77), although both remained sensitive to additional acute hypoxia. In Andeans with EE at 4,340 m, hemodilution lowered PVR in room air (2.9 ± 0.9 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 wu, P = 0.03), but PASP remained unchanged (31.3 ± 6.7 vs. 30.9 ± 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.80) due to an increase in cardiac output. Collectively, our series of studies reveal that HPV is modified by the duration of exposure and the prevailing hematocrit level. In application, these findings emphasize the importance of accounting for hematocrit and duration of exposure when interpreting the pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxemia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Red blood cell concentration influences the pulmonary vasculature via direct frictional force and vasoactive signaling, but whether the magnitude of the response is modified with duration of exposure is not known. By assessing the pulmonary vascular response to hemodilution in acute normobaric and prolonged hypobaric hypoxia in lowlanders and lifelong hypobaric hypoxemia in Andean natives, we demonstrated that a reduction in red cell concentration augments the vasoconstrictive effects of hypoxia in lowlanders. In high-altitude natives, hemodilution lowered pulmonary vascular resistance, but a compensatory increase in cardiac output following hemodilution rendered PASP unchanged.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Stembridge, M; Hoiland, RL; Williams, AM; Howe, CA; Donnelly, J; Dawkins, TG; Drane, A; Tymko, MM; Gasho, C; Anholm, J; Simpson, LL; Moore, JP; Bailey, DM; MacLeod, DB; Ainslie, PN

Published Date

  • October 1, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 321 / 4

Start / End Page

  • H738 - H747

PubMed ID

  • 34448634

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1522-1539

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1152/ajpheart.00357.2021

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States