Replicating dissemination and identifying mechanisms of implementation of an empirically supported treatment.
OBJECTIVE: Implementation research is needed in cancer control. Replication of the dissemination of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) is important as is the identification of mechanisms by which dissemination leads to implementation. Addressing these gaps, Study 1 (Cohorts 3-6, N = 104) tests for replication of a successful dissemination to community providers (Brothers et al., 2015; Cohorts 1-2; N = 62) and Study 2 (Cohorts 1-6) tests providers' changes on dissemination outcomes as mechanisms of EST usage. METHOD: The Biobehavioral Intervention (BBI), a psychological EST in cancer control, was disseminated to oncology mental health providers using manual provision, didactics, roleplays, and other strategies. Study 1 tested for pre/post changes in dissemination outcomes (BBI knowledge/skills and attitudes toward and self-efficacy to deliver ESTs/BBI) between cohorts (1-2 vs. 3-6) with repeated measures ANOVAs. In Study 2, the implementation outcome was providers' (N = 166) BBI usage with patients (percent treated). Structural equation models tested dissemination outcome changes as predictors of usage at 2- and 4-months. RESULTS: Study 1 replicated high dissemination outcomes and significant gains in BBI knowledge (p < .001) in Cohorts 3-6. Unlike Cohorts 1-2, significant gains were observed in self-efficacy (ps < .001) but not attitudes toward ESTs (p = .523) in Cohorts 3-6. In Study 2, gains in providers' self-efficacy (ps < .05) and EST attitudes (p = .008) predicted greater 2-month (58.4% ± 35.5%) and 4-month (66.2% ± 35.0%) usage of the BBI with patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the only replication of a dissemination for a psychological EST in cancer control. Results reliably show disseminations enhancing providers' self-efficacy to use and positive attitudes toward ESTs as mechanisms for EST implementation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Lo, SB; Conley, CC; Brothers, BM; Ryba, MM; Frierson, GF; Shelby, RA; Thornton, LM; Carpenter, KM; Andersen, BL
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