Observational Study of the Association between Air Cadmium Exposure and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness at Diagnosis among a Nationwide Retrospective Cohort of 230,540 Patients in the United States.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Although studies have investigated cadmium and prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality, the role of cadmium in PC progression might be more clinically relevant. In this observational study, we assessed the association between air cadmium exposure and PC aggressiveness, with PC stage defined as metastatic or localized and Gleason grade defined as high (Gleason score ≥ 8) or low (Gleason score ≤ 6) among PC patients from the 2010-2014 US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The 2005 and 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment provided county-level air cadmium concentrations. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and were calculated using random intercept mixed effects logistic regression, comparing the 80th to 20th percentile of exposure. We adjusted for age, sociodemographic status, smoking prevalence, and overall air quality at the county level, and stratified by race, age, and degree of urbanization. The cohort consisted of 230,540 cases from 493 counties. Strong associations were observed in nonmetropolitan, urban areas: (OR 1.26, CI 1.14-1.39) for metastatic vs. localized and (OR 1.41, CI 1.27-1.57) for high- vs. low-grade PC where 40 million Americans reside. This study may be hypothesis-generating to inform future studies and public health measures.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Vijayakumar, V; Abern, MR; Jagai, JS; Kajdacsy-Balla, A

Published Date

  • August 6, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 18 / 16

PubMed ID

  • 34444081

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8392592

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1660-4601

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3390/ijerph18168333


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Switzerland