Assessing mitral regurgitation in the prediction of clinical outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to reduce mitral regurgitation (MR), although the clinical impact of this improvement remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the impact of MR improvement on clinical outcome after CRT and to assess predictors and mechanism for change in MR. METHODS: This was a cohort study of patients undergoing CRT for conventional indications with baseline and follow-up echocardiography (at 6 months). MR severity was classified into 4 grades. The primary end point was time to all-cause death or time to first heart failure (HF) hospitalization assessed at 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were included: median age was 70.2 years, 90 (20.5%) were women, 255 (58.1%) with ischemic cardiomyopathy, and mean QRS width was 162 ms. Worsening severity of baseline MR was independently predictive of HF or all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.75; P = .042). Reduction in MR after CRT was significantly associated with lower HF hospitalization and improved survival (hazard ratio 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.85; P = .002). Degree of baseline MR and longer surface QRS to left ventricular lead time were significant predictors of MR change. Patients with MR reduction exhibited lower mitral valve tenting area (P < .001) and coaptation height (P < .001) than those with stable or worsening MR, suggestive of improved ventricular geometry as a mechanism for change in MR. CONCLUSION: Degree of baseline MR and change in MR after CRT predicted all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization at 3 years. Longer surface QRS to left ventricular lead time at implant may be a means to target MR improvement.
Upadhyay, GA; Chatterjee, NA; Kandala, J; Friedman, DJ; Park, M-Y; Tabtabai, SR; Hung, J; Singh, JP
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