Periconceptional Maternal Diet Characterized by High Glycemic Loading Is Associated with Offspring Behavior in NEST.
Maternal periconceptional diets have known associations with proper offspring neurodevelopment. Mechanisms for such associations include improper energy/nutrient balances between mother and fetus, as well as altered offspring epigenetics during development due to maternal nutrient and inflammatory status. Using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and assessing offspring temperament with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (n = 325, mean age = 13.9 months), we sought to test whether a maternal periconceptional diet characterized by high glycemic loading (MGL) would affect offspring temperament using adjusted ordinal regression. After limiting false discovery to 10%, offspring born to mothers in tertile 3 of glycemic loading (referent = tertile 1) were more likely to be in the next tertile of anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.51 (1.88-11.07)] and inhibition-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 3.42 (1.49-7.96)]. Male offspring were more likely to exhibit impulsive [OR (95% CI) = 5.55 (1.76-18.33)], anxiety [OR (95% CI) = 4.41 (1.33-15.30)], sleep dysregulation [OR (95% CI) = 4.14 (1.34-13.16)], empathy [6.68 (1.95-24.40)], and maladaptive behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 9.86 (2.81-37.18)], while females were more likely to exhibit increased anxiety-related behaviors [OR (95% CI) = 15.02 (3.14-84.27)]. These associations persisted when concurrently modeled with the maternal-Mediterranean dietary pattern. In a subset (n = 142), we also found MGL associated with increased mean methylation of the imprint control region of SGCE/PEG10. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance of maternal dietary patterns on offspring neurodevelopment, offering avenues for prevention options for mothers.
Alick, CL; Maguire, RL; Murphy, SK; Fuemmeler, BF; Hoyo, C; House, JS
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