β-Arrestin-Biased Allosteric Modulator Potentiates Carvedilol-Stimulated β Adrenergic Receptor Cardioprotection.
β 1 adrenergic receptors (β 1ARs) are central regulators of cardiac function and a drug target for cardiac disease. As a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, β 1ARs activate cellular signaling by primarily coupling to Gs proteins to activate adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent pathways, and the multifunctional adaptor-transducer protein β-arrestin. Carvedilol, a traditional β-blocker widely used in treating high blood pressure and heart failure by blocking β adrenergic receptor-mediated G protein activation, can selectively stimulate Gs-independent β-arrestin signaling of β adrenergic receptors, a process known as β-arrestin-biased agonism. Recently, a DNA-encoded small-molecule library screen against agonist-occupied β 2 adrenergic receptors (β 2ARs) identified Compound-6 (Cmpd-6) to be a positive allosteric modulator for agonists on β 2ARs. Intriguingly, it was further discovered that Cmpd-6 is positively cooperative with the β-arrestin-biased ligand carvedilol at β 2ARs. Here we describe the surprising finding that at β 1ARs unlike β 2ARs, Cmpd-6 is cooperative only with carvedilol and not agonists. Cmpd-6 increases the binding affinity of carvedilol for β 1ARs and potentiates carvedilol-stimulated, β-arrestin-dependent β 1AR signaling, such as epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, whereas it does not have an effect on Gs-mediated cAMP generation. In vivo, Cmpd-6 enhances the antiapoptotic, cardioprotective effect of carvedilol in response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. This antiapoptotic role of carvedilol is dependent on β-arrestins since it is lost in mice with myocyte-specific deletion of β-arrestins. Our findings demonstrate that Cmpd-6 is a selective β-arrestin-biased allosteric modulator of β 1ARs and highlight its potential clinical utility in enhancing carvedilol-mediated cardioprotection against ischemic injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study demonstrates the positive cooperativity of Cmpd-6 on β1ARs as a β-arrestin-biased positive allosteric modulator. Cmpd-6 selectively enhances the affinity and cellular signaling of carvedilol, a known β-arrestin-biased β-blocker for β1ARs, whereas it has minimal effect on other ligands tested. Importantly, Cmpd-6 enhances the β-arrestin-dependent in vivo cardioprotective effect of carvedilol during ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis. The data support the potential therapeutic application of Cmpd-6 to enhance the clinical benefits of carvedilol in the treatment of cardiac disease.
Wang, J; Pani, B; Gokhan, I; Xiong, X; Kahsai, AW; Jiang, H; Ahn, S; Lefkowitz, RJ; Rockman, HA
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