Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy for multiple myeloma.
Although treatment outcomes of multiple myeloma patients have improved significantly during the last two decades, myeloma is still an incurable disease. There are newly emerging immunotherapies to treat multiple myeloma including monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugate, bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. Impressive response rate and clinical efficacy in heavily pretreated myeloma patients led to the FDA approval of the first myeloma CAR-T therapy in March 2021. Among many different targets for myeloma CAR-T therapies, B Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) has been the most successful target so far, but other targets which can be used either for single-target or dual-target CAR-T's are actively being explored. Clinical efficacy and safety of current myeloma CAR-T therapies will be presented here. Potential mechanisms leading to resistance include clearance of CAR-T cells, antigenic escape, and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Novel strategies to enhance myeloma CAR-T will also be described. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the current data and the future directions of myeloma CAR-T therapies.
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