Long-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention: A Pragmatic Community Trial to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle education on primary prevention of metabolic syndrome in a middle-income country.

Study design

This study followed 3,180 individuals free of metabolic syndrome who were under the coverage of three health centers in Tehran from 1999 until 2015. They were undergoing triennial examinations resulting in four re-exams. People in one of three areas received interventions consisting of family-, school-, and community-based educational programs, including a face-to-face educational session at baseline. Data were analyzed considering the incidence of metabolic syndrome at each re-exam and also repeated-measure analysis including all re-exams together. Weighting was considered to correct selection bias because of loss to follow-up. Data were analyzed in 2017.


After 3 years, 149 of 852 participants in the intervention and 471 of 2,328 people in control area developed metabolic syndrome at first re-exam resulting in a RR of 0.78 (95% CI=0.67, 0.92). The difference between groups remained unchanged up to the 6-year follow-up (RR=0.79, 95% CI=0.66, 0.93, at second re-exam), but disappeared during the third and fourth re-exams (RR=1.04, 95% CI=0.91, 1.18 and RR=1.03, 95% CI=0.91, 1.16, respectively). Marginal models for longitudinal data showed a significant interaction between intervention and time of re-exams. Further analyses showed that the effect of the intervention might have been rooted in improvement of lipid profile and glucose level.


In a middle-income country, face-to-face educational sessions followed by a long-term maintenance community-level educational program could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome for up to 6 years. A booster face-to-face session is recommended to retain this preventive effect.

Trial registration

This study is registered at Iran Registry for Clinical Trials (http://irct.ir) IRCT138705301058N1.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Khalili, D; Asgari, S; Lotfaliany, M; Zafari, N; Hadaegh, F; Momenan, A-A; Nowroozpoor, A; Hosseini-Esfahani, F; Mirmiran, P; Amiri, P; Azizi, F

Published Date

  • March 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 56 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 437 - 446

PubMed ID

  • 30777162

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-2607

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0749-3797

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.10.029


  • eng