Association between Kidney Function, Proteinuria and the Risk of Multiple Myeloma: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in South Korea.
PURPOSE: While renal impairment is one of the first clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma (MM), declined renal function may conversely be a risk factor for cancers including MM. In this study, we investigated the relationship between chronic kidney disease and MM at a population level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 9,809,376 adults who participated in a nationwide health screening program and had no MM, cancer or end-stage renal disease at baseline were investigated for incidence of MM. The impact of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and random urine dipstick proteinuria, and interactive associations of the two factors on the MM incidence were evaluated. RESULTS: The general incidence of MM was 4.8 per 100,000 person-years (mean follow-up of 8.3 years). Participants with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (5.8% of participants) had higher MM incidence than those with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.43). When eGFR was graded into five levels, there was a significant inverse dose-response relationship between eGFR level and MM incidence at the lower eGFR levels (reference: eGFR 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2). A dose-response relationship was also found with degree of dipstick proteinuria and incidence of MM. CONCLUSION: Adults with decreased renal function indicated either by decreased eGFR or presence of proteinuria are at a higher risk of developing MM compared to those without, and there is a dose-response relationship between the severity of renal impairment and MM incidence.
Choi, T; Ahn, W; Shin, DW; Han, K; Kim, D; Chun, S
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