Closed-loop neuromodulation in an individual with treatment-resistant depression.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Deep brain stimulation is a promising treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions such as major depression. It could be optimized by identifying neural biomarkers that trigger therapy selectively when symptom severity is elevated. We developed an approach that first used multi-day intracranial electrophysiology and focal electrical stimulation to identify a personalized symptom-specific biomarker and a treatment location where stimulation improved symptoms. We then implanted a chronic deep brain sensing and stimulation device and implemented a biomarker-driven closed-loop therapy in an individual with depression. Closed-loop therapy resulted in a rapid and sustained improvement in depression. Future work is required to determine if the results and approach of this n-of-1 study generalize to a broader population.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Scangos, KW; Khambhati, AN; Daly, PM; Makhoul, GS; Sugrue, LP; Zamanian, H; Liu, TX; Rao, VR; Sellers, KK; Dawes, HE; Starr, PA; Krystal, AD; Chang, EF

Published Date

  • October 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 27 / 10

Start / End Page

  • 1696 - 1700

PubMed ID

  • 34608328

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1546-170X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/s41591-021-01480-w


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States