Effects and tolerability of exercise therapy modality on cardiorespiratory fitness in lung cancer: a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a cardinal feature of post-treatment primary lung cancer. The most effective exercise therapy regimen to improve CRF has not been determined. METHODS: In this parallel-group factorial randomized controlled trial, lung cancer survivors with poor CRF (below age-sex sedentary values) were randomly allocated to receive 48 consecutive supervised sessions thrice weekly of (i) aerobic training (AT)-cycle ergometry at 55% to >95% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak); (ii) resistance training (RT)-lower and upper extremity exercises at 50-85% of maximal strength; (iii) combination training (CT)-AT plus RT; or (iv) stretching attention control (AC) for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in CRF (VO2 peak, mL O2 ·kg-1 ·min-1 ). Secondary endpoints were body composition, muscle strength, patient-reported outcomes, tolerability (relative dose intensity of exercise), and safety. Analysis of covariance determined change in primary and secondary endpoints from baseline to post-intervention (Week 17) with adjustment for baseline values of the endpoint and other relevant clinical covariates. RESULTS: Ninety patients (65 ± 9 years; 66% female) were randomized (AT, n = 24; RT, n = 23; CT, n = 20; and AC, n = 23) of the planned n = 160. No serious adverse events were observed. For the overall cohort, the lost-to-follow-up rate was 10%. Mean attendance was ≥75% in all groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, VO2 peak increased 1.1 mL O2 ·kg-1 ·min-1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 2.2, P = 0.04] and 1.4 mL O2 ·kg-1 ·min-1 (95% CI: 0.2, 2.5, P = 0.02) in AT and CT, respectively, compared with AC. There was no difference in VO2 peak change between RT and AC (-0.1 mL O2 ·kg-1 ·min-1 , 95% CI: -1.2, 1.0, P = 0.88). Favourable improvements in maximal strength and body composition were observed in RT and CT groups compared with AT and AC groups (Ps < 0.05). No between-group changes were observed for any patient-reported outcomes. Relative dose intensity of exercise was lower in RT and CT compared with AT (Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a smaller than planned sample size, AT and CT significantly improved VO2 peak in lung cancer survivors; however, the tolerability-to-benefit ratio was superior for AT and hence may be the preferred modality to target impaired CRF in post-treatment lung cancer survivors.
Scott, JM; Thomas, SM; Herndon, JE; Douglas, PS; Yu, AF; Rusch, V; Huang, J; Capaci, C; Harrison, JN; Stoeckel, KJ; Nilsen, T; Edvardsen, E; Michalski, MG; Eves, ND; Jones, LW
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