Association of Retail Environment and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status With Mortality Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in the United States: Cardiovascular Health Study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Few studies have examined the association of neighborhood environment and mortality among community-dwelling older populations. Geographic Information Systems-based measures of neighborhood physical environment may provide new insights on the health effects of the social and built environment.


We studied 4 379 community-dwelling older adults in the United States aged 65 years and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Principal component analysis was used to identify neighborhood components from 48 variables assessing facilities and establishments, demographic composition, socioeconomic status, and economic prosperity. We used a Cox model to evaluate the association of neighborhood components with 5-year mortality. Age, sex, race, education, income, marital status, body mass index, smoking status, disability, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were included as covariates. We also examined the interactions between neighborhood components and sex and race (Black vs White or other).


We identified 5 neighborhood components, representing facilities and resources, immigrant communities, community-level economic deprivation, resident-level socioeconomic status, and residents' age. Communities' economic deprivation and residents' socioeconomic status were significantly associated with 5-year mortality. We did not find interactions between sex or race and any of the 5 neighborhood components. The results were similar in a sensitivity analysis where we used 10-year mortality as the outcome.


We found that communities' economic status but not facilities in communities was associated with mortality among older adults. These findings revealed the importance and benefits living in a socioeconomically advantaged neighborhood could have on health among older residents with different demographic backgrounds.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Zhang, K; Lovasi, GS; Odden, MC; Michael, YL; Newman, AB; Arnold, AM; Kim, DH; Wu, C

Published Date

  • November 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 77 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 2240 - 2247

PubMed ID

  • 34669918

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9678200

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1758-535X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1079-5006

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/gerona/glab319


  • eng