The cross-sectional association of cognition with diabetic peripheral and autonomic neuropathy-The GRADE study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Studies examining whether measures of cognition are related to the presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and/or cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) are lacking, as are data regarding factors potentially explaining such associations. METHODS: Participants were from the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes Study (GRADE) that examined 5047 middle-aged people with type 2 diabetes of <10 years of known duration. Verbal learning and immediate and delayed recall (memory) were assessed with the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test; frontal executive function and processing speed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test; and ability to concentrate and organize data with word and animal fluency tests. DPN was assessed with the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and CAN by indices of heart rate variability (standard deviation of normal beat to beat variation [SDNN] and root mean square of successive differences [RMSSD]). RESULTS: DPN was significantly inversely related to measures of immediate recall and processing speed. The percent of cognitive variation explained by DPN was small. Tests of CAN had an inconsistent or absent association with measures of cognition. Higher waist circumference and urine albumin creatinine (UACR) levels were the strongest correlates in the relationship between DPN and cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: DPN, but not CAN, was cross-sectionally associated with lower performance in measures of cognition in people with type 2 diabetes of <10 years of known duration. Greater waist circumference and UACR were important variables in this association. The mechanisms underlying the cross-sectional association of DPN with cognitive impairment are unknown. NCT01794143.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Barzilay, JI; Ghosh, A; Busui, RP; Ahmann, A; Balasubramanyam, A; Banerji, MA; Cohen, RM; Green, J; Ismail-Beigi, F; Martin, CL; Seaquist, E; Luchsinger, JA; GRADE Research Group,

Published Date

  • December 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 35 / 12

Start / End Page

  • 108047 -

PubMed ID

  • 34556408

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8608739

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-460X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2021.108047


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States