Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Survey


Journal Article (Review;Journal)

The effectiveness of a virtual reality experience is strongly affected by the sense of presence of the users involved. This article reviews the different definitions of presence and the main proposed methods to measure it through the analysis of 1,214 papers published in the past 30 years. From the analysis of 239 user studies, we found that 85.8% used subjective measures, 11.7% used a combination of subjective and objective measures, while 2.5% used only objective measures. We also identified, from the studies reviewed, 29 main factors to evoke presence in virtual environments, grouped into four categories: Engagement, Personal Characteristics, Interaction Fidelity, and Display Fidelity.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Souza, V; Maciel, A; Nedel, L; Kopper, R

Published Date

  • November 1, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 54 / 8

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1557-7341

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0360-0300

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1145/3466817

Citation Source

  • Scopus