Racial Differences in Survival Among Advanced-stage Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Who Received Immunotherapy: An Analysis of the US National Cancer Database (NCDB).
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among men and women in the United States, with significant racial disparities in survival. It is unclear whether these disparities persist upon equal utilization of immunotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between race and all-cause mortality among non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received immunotherapy. We obtained data from the 2016 National Cancer Database on patients diagnosed with advanced-stage (III-IV) NSCLC from 2015 to 2016. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) by race/ethnicity. A total of 2940 patients were included. Non-Hispanic (NH)-Black patients had a lower risk of death relative to NH-White patients (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.98) after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment factors. Formal tests of interaction evaluating race with Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score and race with area-level median income were nonsignificant. However, in stratified analyses, NH-Black versus NH-White patients had a lower risk of death in models adjusted for sociodemographic factors among those with at least 1 comorbidity (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.97), and those living in regions within the 2 lowest quartiles of median income (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Among advanced-stage NSCLC patients who received immunotherapy, NH-Black patients experienced higher survival compared with NH-White patients. We urge the implementation of policies and interventions that seek to equalize access to care as a means of addressing differences in overall NSCLC survival by race.
Gupta, A; Zhang, D; Braithwaite, D; Karanth, SD; Tailor, TD; Clarke, JM; Akinyemiju, T
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