Trends in cardiovascular risk factors and treatment goals in patients with diabetes in Singapore-analysis of the SingHealth Diabetes Registry.

Journal Article (Multicenter Study;Journal Article)


Asian populations are at high risk of diabetes and related vascular complications. We examined risk factor control, preventive care, and disparities in these trends among adults with diabetes in Singapore.


The sample included 209,930 adults with diabetes aged≥18 years from a multi-institutional SingHealth Diabetes Registry between 2013 and 2019 in Singapore. We performed logistic generalized estimating equations (GEEs) regression analysis and used linear mixed effect modeling to evaluate the temporal trends.


Between 2013 and 2019, the unadjusted control rates of glycated hemoglobin (4.8%, 95%CI (4.4 to 5.1) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (11.5%, 95%CI (11.1 to 11.8)) improved, but blood pressure (BP) control worsened (systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) <140/90 mmHg: -6.6%, 95%CI (-7.0 to -6.2)). These trends persisted after accounting for the demographics including age, gender, ethnicity, and housing type. The 10-year adjusted risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) (3.4%, 95% (3.3 to 3.5)) and stroke (10.4%, 95% CI (10.3 to 10.5)) increased. In 2019, the control rates of glycated hemoglobin, BP (SBP/DBP<140/90 mmHg), LDL-C, each, and all three risk factors together, accounted for 51.5%, 67.7%, 72.2%, and 24.4%, respectively.


Trends in risk factor control improved for glycated hemoglobin and LDL-C, but worsened for BP among diabetic adults in Singapore from 2013 to 2019. Control rates for all risk factors remain inadequate.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Feng, L; Lam, A; Carmody, D; Lim, CW; Tan, G; Goh, S-Y; Bee, YM; Jafar, TH

Published Date

  • January 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 16 / 11

Start / End Page

  • e0259157 -

PubMed ID

  • 34748574

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8575178

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1932-6203

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1932-6203

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1371/journal.pone.0259157


  • eng