Introducing matrix sparsity with kernel truncation into dose calculations for fluence optimization.
Deep learning algorithms for radiation therapy treatment planning automation require large patient datasets and complex architectures that often take hundreds of hours to train. Some of these algorithms require constant dose updating (such as with reinforcement learning) and may take days. When these algorithms rely on commerical treatment planning systems to perform dose calculations, the data pipeline becomes the bottleneck of the entire algorithm's efficiency. Further, uniformly accurate distributions are not always needed for the training and approximations can be introduced to speed up the process without affecting the outcome. These approximations not only speed up the calculation process, but allow for custom algorithms to be written specifically for the purposes of use in AI/ML applications where the dose and fluence must be calculated a multitude of times for a multitude of different situations. Here we present and investigate the effect of introducing matrix sparsity through kernel truncation on the dose calculation for the purposes of fluence optimzation within these AI/ML algorithms. The basis for this algorithm relies on voxel discrimination in which numerous voxels are pruned from the computationally expensive part of the calculation. This results in a significant reduction in computation time and storage. Comparing our dose calculation against calculations in both a water phantom and patient anatomy in Eclipse without heterogenity corrections produced gamma index passing rates around 99% for individual and composite beams with uniform fluence and around 98% for beams with a modulated fluence. The resulting sparsity introduces a reduction in computational time and space proportional to the square of the sparsity tolerance with a potential decrease in cost greater than 10 times that of a dense calculation allowing not only for faster caluclations but for calculations that a dense algorithm could not perform on the same system.
Stephens, H; Wu, QJ; Wu, Q
Volume / Issue
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)