Acute Echocardiographic Effects of Exogenous Ketone Administration in Healthy Participants.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Interest in therapeutic applications of exogenous ketones has grown significantly, spanning patients with heart failure to endurance athletes. Exogenous ketones engender significant effects on cardiac function in heart failure and provide an ergogenic benefit in athletes. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exogenous ketones on cardiac function in healthy participants. METHODS: In a single-arm intervention study, 20 fasting, healthy participants underwent comprehensive echocardiography (two-dimensional, Doppler, and strain) before and 30 min after weight-based oral ketone ester administration. The relationship between changes in log-transformed biomarker levels and change in absolute global longitudinal strain (GLS) was assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: The mean age was 30 ± 7 years, 50% were women, 45% were nonwhite, and the average body mass index was 24.3 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ketone ingestion acutely elevated β-hydroxybutyrate levels from a median of 0.13 mmol/L (interquartile range, 0.10-0.37 mmol/L) to 3.23 mmol/L (interquartile range, 2.40-4.97 mmol/L) (P < .001). After ketone ester consumption, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, biventricular function, left ventricular GLS, and left atrial (LA) strain all augmented, while systemic vascular resistance decreased. Displayed as mean change, increases in ejection fraction (3.1%; 95% CI, 2.0%-4.2%; P < .001), GLS (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.4%-2.7%; P < .001), right ventricular S' (1.1 cm/sec; 95% CI, 0.4-1.8 cm/sec; P = .004), LA reservoir strain (7%; 95% CI, 3%-12%; P = .005), and LA contractile strain (4%; 2%-6%; P = .001) were observed. During robustly achieved ketosis, change in GLS was inversely associated with change in nonesterified fatty acids (P = .019). CONCLUSIONS: In a single-arm study, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, biventricular function, and LV and LA strain acutely augmented after ketone ester ingestion in healthy, fasting participants, similar to several effects observed in the failing heart. These data may provide supporting data for the ergogenic benefits observed in athletes and may become increasingly relevant with exogenous ketone consumption across a variety of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular applications.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Selvaraj, S; Hu, R; Vidula, MK; Dugyala, S; Tierney, A; Ky, B; Margulies, KB; Shah, SH; Kelly, DP; Bravo, PE

Published Date

  • March 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 35 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 305 - 311

PubMed ID

  • 34798244

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8901445

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1097-6795

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.echo.2021.10.017


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States