Efficacy and safety of next-generation tick transcriptome-derived direct thrombin inhibitors.
Despite their limitations, unfractionated heparin (UFH) and bivalirudin remain standard-of-care parenteral anticoagulants for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We discovered novel direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) from tick salivary transcriptomes and optimised their pharmacologic activity. The most potent, ultravariegin, inhibits thrombin with a Ki of 4.0 pM, 445-fold better than bivalirudin. Unexpectedly, despite their greater antithrombotic effect, variegin/ultravariegin demonstrated less bleeding, achieving a 3-to-7-fold wider therapeutic index in rodent thrombosis and bleeding models. When used in combination with aspirin and ticagrelor in a porcine model, variegin/ultravariegin reduced stent thrombosis compared with antiplatelet therapy alone but achieved a 5-to-7-fold lower bleeding time than UFH/bivalirudin. Moreover, two antibodies screened from a naïve human antibody library effectively reversed the anticoagulant activity of ultravariegin, demonstrating proof-of-principle for antidote reversal. Variegin and ultravariegin are promising translational candidates for next-generation DTIs that may reduce peri-PCI bleeding in the presence of antiplatelet therapy.
Koh, CY; Shih, N; Yip, CYC; Li, AWL; Chen, W; Amran, FS; Leong, EJE; Iyer, JK; Croft, G; Mazlan, MIB; Chee, Y-L; Yap, E-S; Monroe, DM; Hoffman, M; Becker, RC; de Kleijn, DPV; Verma, V; Gupta, A; Chaudhary, VK; Richards, AM; Kini, RM; Chan, MY
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