Altered lower extremity biomechanics following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction during single-leg and double-leg stop-jump tasks: A bilateral total support moment analysis.
BACKGROUND: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can lead to long-lasting biomechanical alterations that put individuals at risk of a second ACL injury. Examining the total support moment may reveal between- and within-limb compensatory strategies. METHODS: Twenty-six participants who were cleared to return to sport following ACL reconstruction were recruited. Each participant completed the single-leg and double-leg stop jump tasks. These tasks were analyzed using force plates and a 3D motion analysis system. The total support moment was calculated by summing the internal moments of the hip, knee and ankle at peak vertical ground reaction force. FINDINGS: Internal knee extensor moment was lower in the involved limb compared to the uninvolved for both tasks (17.6%, P = 0.022; 18.4%, P = 0.008). No significant between-limb differences were found for the total support moment. The involved limb exhibited an 18.2% decrease in knee joint contribution (P = 0.01) and a 21.6% increase in ankle joint contribution (P = 0.016) to the total support moment compared to the uninvolved limb in the single-leg stop jump task. INTERPRETATION: Compensation for the involved knee is likely due to altered biomechanics that redistributes load to the uninvolved knee or to adjacent joints of the same limb. A partial shift in joint contribution from the knee to the ankle during the single-leg stop jump task demonstrates a tendency to decrease load to the knee. Further studies are needed to investigate how these adaptations impact the prevalence of subsequent injury and poor joint health.
Ma, W; Pan, CY; Diehl, LH; Wittstein, JR; Riboh, JC; Toth, AP; Amendola, A; Faherty, MS; Killelea, C; Le, DT; Sell, TC
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