The microenvironment of brain metastases from solid tumors.
Brain metastasis (BrM) is an area of unmet medical need that poses unique therapeutic challenges and heralds a dismal prognosis. The intracranial tumor microenvironment (TME) presents several challenges, including the therapy-resistant blood-brain barrier, a unique immune milieu, distinct intercellular interactions, and specific metabolic conditions, that are responsible for treatment failures and poor clinical outcomes. There is a complex interplay between malignant cells that metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) and the native TME. Cancer cells take advantage of vascular, neuronal, immune, and anatomical vulnerabilities to proliferate with mechanisms specific to the CNS. In this review, we discuss unique aspects of the TME in the context of brain metastases and pathways through which the TME may hold the key to the discovery of new and effective therapies for patients with BrM.
Srinivasan, ES; Deshpande, K; Neman, J; Winkler, F; Khasraw, M
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