Optimizing management of sickle cell disease in patients undergoing surgery.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) are likely to be referred for surgery at some point in their lifetime due to a high incidence of musculoskeletal and intrabdominal complications such as avascular necrosis and gallbladder disease. Preoperative optimization is a multidisciplinary process that involves a hematologist with SCD expertise, an anesthesiologist, and the surgical team. The type and risk classification of the surgery, disease severity, medications, baseline hemoglobin, transfusion history, and history of prior surgical complications are often documented. Clinicians should consider perioperative risk assessment that includes determining the patient's functional status and cardiovascular risk and screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Many patients will require preoperative transfusion to reduce the risk of postoperative complications such as acute chest syndrome and vaso-occlusive pain crises. The hematologist should consider the patient's preoperative transfusion requirements and ensure that the surgical team has an appropriate plan for postoperative observation and management. This often includes follow-up laboratory studies, a postoperative pain management plan, and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The transfusion plan should be patient-specific and take into account the SCD genotype, baseline hemoglobin, disease severity, risk classification of the surgery, and history of prior surgical complications. In the intraoperative and postoperative period, dehydration, hypothermia, hypotension, hypoxia, and acidosis should be avoided, and incentive spirometry should be utilized to minimize complications such as acute chest syndrome. In this review we discuss preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies to optimize patients with SCD undergoing surgery.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Oyedeji, CI; Welsby, IJ

Published Date

  • December 10, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 2021 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 405 - 410

PubMed ID

  • 34889383

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8791118

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1520-4383

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1182/hematology.2021000274

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States