Diagnosing capillary leak in critically ill patients: development of an innovative scoring instrument for non-invasive detection.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Background

The concomitant occurrence of the symptoms intravascular hypovolemia, peripheral edema and hemodynamic instability is typically named Capillary Leak Syndrome (CLS) and often occurs in surgical critical ill patients. However, neither a unitary definition nor standardized diagnostic criteria exist so far. We aimed to investigate common characteristics of this phenomenon with a subsequent scoring system, determining whether CLS contributes to mortality.

Methods

We conducted this single-center, observational, multidisciplinary, prospective trial in two separately run surgical ICUs of a tertiary academic medical center. 200 surgical patients admitted to the ICU and 30 healthy volunteers were included. Patients were clinically diagnosed as CLS or No-CLS group (each N = 100) according to the grade of edema, intravascular hypovolemia, hemodynamic instability, and positive fluid balance by two independent attending physicians with > 10 years of experience in ICU. We performed daily measurements with non-invasive body impedance electrical analysis, ultrasound and analysis of serum biomarkers to generate objective diagnostic criteria. Receiver operating characteristics were used, while we developed machine learning models to increase diagnostic specifications for our scoring model.

Results

The 30-day mortility was increased among CLS patients (12 vs. 1%, P = 0.002), while showing higher SOFA-scores. Extracellular water was increased in patients with CLS with higher echogenicity of subcutaneous tissue [29(24-31) vs. 19(16-21), P < 0.001]. Biomarkers showed characteristic alterations, especially with an increased angiopoietin-2 concentration in CLS [9.9(6.2-17.3) vs. 3.7(2.6-5.6)ng/mL, P < 0.001]. We developed a score using seven parameters (echogenicity, SOFA-score, angiopoietin-2, syndecan-1, ICAM-1, lactate and interleukin-6). A Random Forest prediction model boosted its diagnostic characteristics (AUC 0.963, P < 0.001), while a two-parameter decision tree model showed good specifications (AUC 0.865).

Conclusions

Diagnosis of CLS in critically ill patients is feasible by objective, non-invasive parameters using the CLS-Score. A simplified two-parameter diagnostic approach can enhance clinical utility. CLS contributes to mortality and should, therefore, classified as an independent entity.

Trial registration

German Clinical Trials Registry (DRKS No. 00012713), Date of registration 10/05/2017, www.drks.de.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Wollborn, J; Hassenzahl, LO; Reker, D; Staehle, HF; Omlor, AM; Baar, W; Kaufmann, KB; Ulbrich, F; Wunder, C; Utzolino, S; Buerkle, H; Kalbhenn, J; Heinrich, S; Goebel, U

Published Date

  • December 15, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 11 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 175 -

PubMed ID

  • 34910264

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8674404

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2110-5820

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2110-5820

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/s13613-021-00965-8

Language

  • eng