Association of Brain Injury Biomarkers and Circulatory Shock Following Moderate-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study.
INTRODUCTION: Early circulatory shock following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multifactorial process; however, the impact of brain injury biomarkers on the risk of shock has not been evaluated. We examined the association between neuronal injury biomarker levels and the development of circulatory shock following moderate-severe TBI. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we examined adults with moderate-severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score <13) enrolled in the TRACK-TBI study, an 18-center prospective TBI cohort study. The exposures were day-1 levels of neuronal injury biomarkers (glial fibrillary acidic protein, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1], S100 calcium-binding protein B [S100B], neuron-specific enolase), and of an inflammatory biomarker (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). The primary outcome was the development of circulatory shock, defined as cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score ≥2 within 72 hours of admission. Association between day-1 biomarker levels and the development of circulatory shock was assessed with regression analysis. RESULTS: The study included 392 subjects, with a mean age of 40 years; 314 (80%) were male and 165 (42%) developed circulatory shock. Median (interquartile range) day-1 levels of UCH-L1 (994.8 [518.7 to 1988.2] pg/mL vs. 548.1 [280.2 to 1151.9] pg/mL; P<0.0001) and S100B (0.47 μg/mL [0.25 to 0.88] vs. 0.27 [0.16 to 0.46] μg/mL; P<0.0001) were elevated in those who developed early circulatory shock compared with those who did not. In multivariable regression, there were associations between levels of both UCH-L1 (odds ratio, 1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.12]; P<0.0005) and S100B (odds ratio, 1.73 [95% confidence interval 1.27-2.36]; P<0.0005) with the development of circulatory shock. CONCLUSION: Neuronal injury biomarkers may provide the improved mechanistic understanding and possibly early identification of patients at risk for early circulatory shock following moderate-severe TBI.
Toro, C; Jain, S; Sun, S; Temkin, N; Barber, J; Manley, G; Komisarow, JM; Ohnuma, T; Foreman, B; Korley, F; James, ML; Laskowitz, D; Vavilala, MS; Hernandez, A; Mathew, JP; Markowitz, AJ; Krishnamoorthy, V; and for the TRACK-TBI Investigators,
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