Blood gas analyses in hyperbaric and underwater environments: a systematic review.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review;Systematic Review)

Pulmonary gas exchange during diving or in a dry hyperbaric environment is affected by increased breathing gas density and possibly water immersion. During free diving, there is also the effect of apnea. Few studies have published blood gas data in underwater or hyperbaric environments: this review summarizes the available literature and was used to test the hypothesis that arterial Po2 under hyperbaric conditions can be predicted from blood gas measurement at 1 atmosphere assuming a constant arterial/alveolar Po2 ratio (a:A). A systematic search was performed on traditional sources including arterial blood gases obtained on humans in hyperbaric or underwater environments. The a:A was calculated at 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA). For each condition, predicted arterial partial pressure of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) at pressure was calculated using the 1 ATA a:A, and the measured [Formula: see text] was plotted against the predicted value with Spearman correlation coefficients. Of 3,640 records reviewed, 30 studies were included: 25 were reports describing values obtained in hyperbaric chambers, and the remaining were collected while underwater. Increased inspired O2 at pressure resulted in increased [Formula: see text], although underlying lung disease in patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen attenuated the rise. [Formula: see text] generally increased only slightly. In breath-hold divers, hyperoxemia generally occurred at maximum depth, with hypoxemia after surfacing. The a:A adequately predicted the [Formula: see text] under various conditions: dry (r = 0.993, P < 0.0001), rest versus exercise (r = 0.999, P < 0.0001), and breathing mixtures (r = 0.995, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, pulmonary oxygenation under hyperbaric conditions can be reliably and accurately predicted from 1 ATA a:A measurements.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Paganini, M; Moon, RE; Boccalon, N; Melloni, GEM; Giacon, TA; Camporesi, EM; Bosco, G

Published Date

  • February 1, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 132 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 283 - 293

PubMed ID

  • 34941439

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1522-1601

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1152/japplphysiol.00569.2021


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States