Embolization of palpebral and orbito-frontal fistulas: technical and anatomical considerations in treating high-flow superficial skin lesions with liquid embolics.
The treatment of palpebral and periorbital fistulas may be challenging due to the presence of multiple anastomosis with eloquent ophthalmic and intracranial vascular territories. Moreover, cosmetic and functional characteristics of this area pose unique challenges to open surgical approaches and endovascular therapy. We review the advantages and disadvantages of different liquid embolics in treating palpebral and periorbital fistulas as we describe three successfully treated cases. Moreover, we describe important anatomical landmarks that should be considered at the time of treatment of these lesions.
Samaniego, EA; Fisher, M; Hasan, D; Guerrero, WR; Fifi, JT; Bottani, L; Ortega-Gutierrez, S
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