Mechanical Thrombectomy in Distal Vessels: Revascularization Rates, Complications, and Functional Outcome.
INTRODUCTION: Pivotal trials have shown the tremendous efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in proximal occlusions. However distal occlusions involving second-order branches of the middle cerebral artery and beyond, anterior cerebral and posterior cerebral arteries were not represented. In this study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of distal circulation mechanical thrombectomy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients presenting with distal circulation acute ischemic stroke who underwent mechanical thrombectomy 2010 and 2018. RESULTS: Of 453 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, 76 had a distal occlusion. The mean National Institute Health Stroke Scale on admission was 12. Vessels involved included second-order branches of the middle cerebral artery (89%), third- and fourth-order branches of the middle cerebral artery (5%), second-order branch of the anterior cerebral artery (3%), and posterior cerebral artery (3%). Most procedures required 1 pass to recanalize the vessel (55%, n = 42). Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score ≥IIb was achieved in 89% of subjects. Mortality rate was 8% and independent functional outcome of m Rankin score ≤2 at 3 months was seen in 64.7% with clinical follow-up. On multivariate analysis, distal circulation had a significantly shorter length of stay by about 2 days, compared with proximal circulation. Subjects with proximal occlusion were more than 5 times more likely to have a good Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score compared with the distal group. There was no significant difference in periprocedural and postprocedural complications, good functional outcome at 3 months, and mortality between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical thrombectomy procedure for distal circulation strokes is as effective and safe as a proximal group. Though distal vessels supply smaller brain area; however, when symptoms are pronounced, the benefit of the procedure outweighs the risks.
Sweid, A; Head, J; Tjoumakaris, S; Xu, V; Shivashankar, K; Alexander, TD; Dougherty, JA; Gooch, MR; Herial, N; Hasan, D; DePrince, M; Rosenwasser, RH; Jabbour, P
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