Shoe Allergens: A Retrospective Analysis of Cross-sectional Data From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, 2005-2018.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Shoe contact allergy can be difficult to diagnose and manage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to characterize demographics, clinical characteristics, patch test results, and occupational data for the North American Contact Dermatitis Group patients with shoe contact allergy. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 33,661 patients, patch tested from 2005 to 2018, with a shoe source, foot as 1 of 3 sites of dermatitis, and final primary diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. They were more likely to be male (odds ratio = 3.36, confidence interval = 2.71-4.17) and less likely to be older than 40 years (odds ratio = 0.49, confidence interval = 0.40-0.61) compared with others with positive patch test reactions. The most common relevant North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening allergens were potassium dichromate (29.8%), p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin (20.1%), thiuram mix (13.3%), mixed dialkyl thioureas (12.6%), and carba mix (12%). A total of 29.8% (105/352) had positive patch test reactions to supplemental allergens, and 12.2% (43/352) only had reactions to supplemental allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Shoe contact allergy was more common in younger and male patients. Potassium dichromate and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin were the top shoe allergens. Testing supplemental allergens, personal care products, and shoe components should be part of a comprehensive evaluation of suspected shoe contact allergy.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Atwater, AR; Bembry, R; Green, CL; DeKoven, JG; Warshaw, EM; Belsito, DV; Maibach, HI; Silverberg, JI; Taylor, JS; Reeder, MJ; Zug, KA; Fowler, JF; Pratt, MD; Sasseville, D; DeLeo, VA

Published Date

  • January 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 33 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 62 - 69

PubMed ID

  • 35029350

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2162-5220

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/DER.0000000000000750


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States